Governor of the New Jersey, (1863-1866) a "moderate"
Democrat, Parker opposed the Emancipation Proclamation
on the grounds it would violate southerner’s property
rights and did nothing to encourage the enlistment of
black New Jerseyans in the Army. Although agreeing with
party extremists on the possibility of southern slave
revolts, newly elected Governor Joel Parker, a moderate
Declamation on vague Constitutional arguments. In his
1863 message to the Legislature, Parker argued that
Emancipation violated the "property" rights
JOINING THE UNION ARMY
Not surprisingly, the desire to fight
against the South was strong among Blacks in the Northern
states, most of who regarded slavery
as the pivotal issue in the Civil War. In the following
letter, L. D. Sims, an obscure resident of Newark, refuses
to let severe illness minimize his enthusiasm for the
Union cause. Marcus L. Ward (1812-84), to whom Sims’s
letter is addressed, was a prominent Newark businessman
and philanthropist and governor of New Jersey, 1866-69.
During the Civil War he earned the sobriquet, “The Soldier’s
Friend,” and established the Marcus L. Ward Office for
Soldier’s Business to aid and serve enlisted men and
their families. Though New Jersey did not itself organize
any regiments of colored troops, Black New Jersey recruits
andsubstitutes were assigned to regiments elsewhere
and credited to New Jersey. Most of the nearly 2,900
Black New Jersey soldiers served in infantry regiments,
though a few served in cavalry units and 469 died in
service. By: Dr. Clement A. Price
22nd UNITED STATES COLORED INFANTRY
New Jersey’s African-American soldiers served in a
number of regiments and fought on several fronts during
the last year of the Civil War. The 22nd United States
Colored Infantry (USCI) was organized at Camp William
Penn in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in January 1864,
and it was the men of the 22ND who led the charge against
the Rebel defenses at Petersburg. With 681 Jerseyans
on its rolls, the 22nd was the most “Jersey” of all
USCT outfits. The regiment left Philadelphia for Virginia
at the end of January and served at Yorktown through
April of 1864, where it was assigned to Garrison duty
and served on several reconnaissance missions. On June
15, 1864, the 22nd and its division attached to the
White 18th Army Corps. The outfit attacked Petersburg,
Virginia, a vital rail center south ofRichmond. Buried
in the Ambury Hill Cemetery in Cumberland County’s Springtown
are African-American men who served in the Black regiments.
Two men, Edward Staten and John Williams, served in
the 22nd USCI.
NEW JERSEY CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS
This series contains original commissions, discharge
papers, and memorial certificates of New Jersey Civil
War soldiers. The items were received by the Archives
from private sources. Researchers should note that a
great number of similar documents (probably received
by the Adjutant General’s Office from private sources)
can be found in the bound Civil War regimental records
(New Jersey State Archives).
Commission certificate, Capt. John G. C. Macfarlan,
Ten Eyck Guards, 1st Regiment, Burlington Brigade,
New Jersey Militia, Trenton, NJ, August 1861 [ 14”x
17”; Accession #1977.037].
Discharge certificate, Private Silas H. Benjamin,
5th New Jersey Light Artillery [Battery E], New
Jersey Volunteers, Richmond, VA, 12 June 1865 [
8”x11”; Accession #1999.049].
Honorable discharge certificate, Private Lewis
Gooden, Company A, 3rd Regiment, Cavalry New Jersey
Volunteers, 4 July 1866 [ 14” x 18”; Accession #1975.003].
Honorable discharge certificate, Private John
Wilson, Company B, 29th Regiment, New Jersey Volunteers,
Trenton, NJ, 4 July 1866 [14” x 16.5”; Accession
Papers of Private Samuel Crowell, Company M, 2nd
Cavalry, New Jersey Volunteers, 1863 and 1866 [2
items], as follows: Honorable discharge certificate,
Trenton, NJ, 4 July 1866 [16” x 20”].
Soldier’s memorial for Company M, Trenton, NJ,
28 September 1863 [14 x 18.5”]
- Papers of Cpl. David Herbert, Co. E, 6th Regiment/Co.
F, 8th Regiment,
New Jersey Volunteers, 1888-1910 [ 5 item; Accession
#1995.17], as follows:
- Service certificate, Adjutant General’s Office,
Trenton, NJ, 7 July 1888 [ 8” x 10.5 ].
- Letter from Adjutant General C. McClure re:
replacement discharge certificate, War Department,
Washington, D.C., 23 December 1910 [ 8” x 10.5”].
- Certificate in lieu of lost or destroyed discharge
certificate, War Department, Washington, D.C.,
28 December 1910 [ 8.5” x 11”].
- Personalized memorial certificate, no date [
16” x 26” on board, edges chipped; provides service
details and notes on the history of the 6th
and 8th regiments].
- “Army of the Potomac” memorial published by
the National Tribune,Washington, D.C., 1904 [
19” x 25.5”, badly torn].